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INTRODUCTION TO NUTRIENTS
Healthy eating patterns should be enjoyable:
Healthy Eating Patterns – Basics
- Aim to develop healthy eating patterns, it takes time – no need to be fanatical, stressed or to take a rigid approach
- It's about learning general principles and then applying them to suit personal circumstances
- Make what you eat count
- Get a balance of nutrients and variety over a day and a week
- Plan ahead when you can, understanding the general principles means you can be flexible
- Use the Healthy Eating Plate as a basic guide to start
- Remember over a week ensure variety for the full range of nutrients your body needs
- Watch the amount eaten – understand the general principles of serving size – energy requirements are about individual needs
- Start with a few goals and gradually incorporate the principles until healthy eating patterns are a way of life
For expert personal help discuss your needs with a NZ Registered Dietitian
Whole Foods Versus Single Nutrients United Nations / Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
Variety in eating helps to ensure our body gets the nutrients it needs. Stay hydrated with water. Energy requirements and specific nutrition requirements (e.g. for pregnant women) depend on your circumstances.
Carbohydrates and fats are in the news lately. Generally nutrition experts recommend that most people get energy from –
|45 – 55%||Carbohydrates
(starch, sugar, fibre)
|Wholegrain bread, breakfast porridge, rice, vegetables (starchy veg have high levels of carbohydrates), legumes (these also contain protein), milk and yoghurt (these also contain protein but are classified as carbohydrates) and fruit|
|12 – 20%||Protein||Fish (some fish include healthy fats, e.g. sardines) dairy, soy products and eggs|
|Less than 35%||Healthy fats||Salmon, walnuts, canola and olive oil, avocados, other nuts and seeds.
Nuts contain protein but because of fat content are classified here – you need to eat a lot of nuts to get the protein of for example – fish. Similarly, salmon is classified as a protein, however it is a good source of healthy fats.
This is just a simple, rough guide towards healthy eating patterns.
Just some basic principles for a week.
For information specific to your needs please talk to a NZ Registered Dietitian.
Plenty of variety in types and colours daily and over a week
½ plate low carb or ¼ plate if they are starchy
Greens most days e.g. broccoli / spinach / taro leaves = low carb
Yellow and orange a few times a week e.g. capsicum / pumpkin = low carb, golden kumara / corn = starchy
Red at least a few times a week e.g. red cabbage = low carb
White – other a few times a week e.g. cauliflower = low carb, potatoes / parsnips = starchy
NOTE: the fibre in vegetables helps to make you feel full
Choose a variety of types and colours daily and over a week
Eating different fruits gives your body a wide range of valuable nutrients, such as folate, potassium, and vitamins A and C and other vitamins and minerals, and importantly they provide dietary fibre
Remember fruit is a carbohydrate so it is included when calculating optimum personal energy consumption.
Limit fruit juice - it is high in fructose and most don’t have the additional nutrients found in fruit or provide the fibre to help you feel full
GRAINS / STARCHY VEGETABLES
Choose whole grain foods. Achieve the goal with whole grain bread, oats at breakfast or adding quinoa or buckwheat to a salad (as the carbohydrate component of the meal)
Try wholegrain pasta, brown rice or buckwheat noodles
As an alternative choose some starchy veg – kumara, taro, potato – don’t forget colour and variety
Aim for variety in types of protein
Keep meat and poultry portions small and lean and eaten a few times a week
Cook up some dried beans, lentils or other legumes a few times a week (remember - they do contain carbs)
Fish / seafood at least a few times a week
DAIRY or Soy
Milk, yoghurt and soy milk are a good source of calcium, protein and corbohydrate.
To help manage kilojoules and fat there is low fat milk and yoghurt and soy milk.
Check the labels on cheese. Choose lower fat cheeses such as cottage, ricotta or feta and limit higher fat cheeses such as tasty or blue cheese.
Generally the harder the cheese - the higher the fat content.
Aim for overall balance in eating patterns
Fats – choose healthy fats e.g. olive oil. For healthy eating patterns limit fried food
Cooking at home means you are in control of what you eat
Drink plenty of water, reduce drinks low on nutrition
Even if you're eating healthy food, remember not to overeat.
Kilojoules affect body weight directly. If we consume more than we burn, our bodies will convert the excess kilojoules (energy) to fat and store it throughout the body. If we burn more kilojoules than we consume, our bodies will mobilise stored energy throughout the body.
The principles of a Healthy Eating Plate
Diabetes: Your questions answered by Paul Drury and Wendy Gatling
Common misconceptions about diabetes and dietary advice
|People with diabetes need a special diet, different from the rest of the family||People with diabetes are advised to follow healthy eating principles which would be good for all family members|
|Starchy foods can be eaten as much as necessary to satisfy the appetite||Eating starchy foods to satisfy the appetite will often lead to weight gain. Starchy foods need to be kept to reasonable portion sizes|
|If my test results are high, all starchy foods need to be cut out or severely reduced||Everyone needs a balanced diet with some starchy foods. If tests remain high with a balanced diet, diabetes treatment may need adjustment|
|Fat intake has no effect on diabetic control||Fats are high in calories - liberal intake of fats will tend to lead to weight gain and increasing insulin resistance|
|Olive oil and sunflower oil are good for you so you can have as much as you like||These types of oil are preferable to animal fats but high intake will lead to a large calorie intake and weight gain. They should be used in moderation|
|I have been recommended to take five pieces of fruit and five portions vegetables per day||The recommendation is five portion of fruit and vegetables per day. If weight reduction is required, five pieces of fruit may be too large a calorie intake, especially if taken as well as meals|
|All my favourite recipes have to be thrown out now I have diabetes||Many recipes can be adapted to fit into a healthy eating diabetes diet|
|A tin of baked beans contains sugar so is not allowed||The amount of sugar in a portion of baked beans is small and is acceptable. Baked beans are a good source of carbohydrate as, like other pulses, they contain soluble fibre and have a low glycaemic index|
|Meat doesn't need to be counted as it doesn't contain carbohydrate||Meat is a source of protein and fat with a high calorie content. Most people eat too-large portions of meat; 50-75 g of lean cooked meat is sufficient, approximately the size of a pack of cards|
|Brown bread is better than white||Brown bread or wholemeal is no better than white bread; whole-grain is the preferred choice|
Paul Drury and Wendy Gatling 'Diabetes: Your questions answered' (2005)